Número Actual

Volumen 6, Número 9 - Mayo 2016
Editorial, Marie Luise Poincaré - Download
Optimal choice of consumables and reasonable speed traffic to promote energy saving - Felipe Gutiérrez Cerda - Download

  • Abstract. Possibilism perspective indicates that the human being is able to make a suitable technological development, effectively changing their natural environment according to their needs. The automotive industry has made efforts to improve the efficiency of fuel consumption. This has led various technology developments under obtaining an increase automotive engine performance, and thus cut the environmental impact and consequences of climate change. Based on the approach to the problem, this research focused on two goals. Describe the criteria to consider addressing the various alternative fuel consumables, to guide motorists identifying the most relevant variables of consumption. In addition, contrast the speed and regime a vehicle speed versus time travel in a controlled setting, to set up single criteria savings to motorists. About the first goal, it was possible to visualize the range of possibilities available for the correct choice of inputs in view of obtaining energy efficiency. However, it notes that each user must correctly choose each consumable under technical profile who own vehicles. Regarding the second goal, it could get a ratio of consumption rate compared to the decrease in travel time. Based on this, we see how far it is possible to cut travel time versus fuel economy.  As a result, the horizon of Possibilism is completely convenient, be aware of the right to opt for a more reasonable both modes of transport, alternative input, and traffic speed.
  • Keywords:  Climate Change; Energy Efficiency; EcoDriving; Sustainability; Transportation

Changes in the soil microbian variability by alteration of native forest - Juan Araya Silva - Rogers Atero Montes - Download

  • Abstract. Present time, erosion is one of the main environmental problems in Chile, which depresses the soil capability for generating goods and services; besides breaking the synergic relationships between soil and its environment, creating alterations in the ecologic equilibrium of an ecosystem. These variations also alter the soil microbiota in eroded soils or in soils whose native vegetation has been replaced by alien vegetation. To get to know these alterations, a microbial analysis was carried out on the soils of the area of Alto Loica (district of San Pedro de Melipilla, in the Metropolitan Region); which proved a direct relation between the soil status and its bacteria communities. RNA S16 comparative analyses were carried out to on soil bacteria in the rizosphere of a native species: Cryptorcarya alba, an alien tree representative of the area of Alto Loica (eucalyptus cameldulensis), and from eroded soil.     Correlation coefficients close to one indicate a high rate of variability when the samples from the rizosphere of Cryptorcarya alba are compared to analyses from samples coming from Eucalyptus cameldulensis and from eroded soils, which points out to the fact that the alteration of vegetation changes drastically the bacterial composition of soils. This represents an indicator reflecting the status of an ecosystem, and how adapted bacteria collaborate in the ecological cycles of the soil. These variations represent a source of future analyses where the bacteria compositions grouped in biological crusts may become a powerful tool to fend off erosion.
  • Keywords: bacteria; variability; soil; erosion; rizosphere

A linear additive model for ranking road alternatives and for revealing the relative importance of the variables that describe each of them - Paz Díaz Castillo - Download

  • Abstract. The selection of the best alternative within a plausible set has traditionally been a controversial issue in road engineering, particularly cause of the cryptic trait of the relative weights of the variables that explain each of them. Given this common situation, this paper proposes a simple and intuitive model through a linear programming, which not only ranks the alternatives according to their final attractive; but also reveals the relative importance of each variable that describes them. One advantage of this method is that it works regardless of the measurement units of the variables, no matter how different they are. Another advantage is that each alternative gets a number that represents its convenience as the final result.  
  • Keywords: road alternatives; ranking; model; relative weights; linear programming; selection

Chilean gastronomy before Chile: from the Pleistocene of Chinchihuapi stream to the current tables in the world - Lucio Cañete Arratia - Andrés Villavicencio Arce - Jorge Zavalla Vásquez - Felipe Guevara Pezoa - Download

  • Abstract. The territory we now know as Chile began to be inhabited more than 15,000 years ago and scientific evidence shows that these first settlers unfurled a unique cuisine based on some animal and plant inputs that still exist in the diversity of this "Crazy Geography". However, food products from Late Pleistocene as such have been lost in the shadows of time and thus it has disappeared an important part of the cultural richness of the "first Chileans." Fortunately, paleontology with the support of simulation techniques and others technological advances can now illuminate a distant past and imagine the dishes that was cooked, shared and enjoyed in the human settlement located in the riverside of Chinchihuapi stream (Monte Verde, región de Los Lagos, Chile), the oldest of America. Besides, it is likely that this food has had the organoleptic, safety and nutritional qualities which are valued in the present time. So, now that Chilean cuisine tries to position itself as a tourist attractor and achieve a place of prestige in world cuisine, it emerges the initiative to offer a kind of gastronomy inspired in the people of Monte Verde. Therefore, this project aims to set up different recipes for a gastronomic offer in restaurants, supermarkets and dining room at home. These recipes will be the result of semi-heuristic combinations of inputs currently available revealed by paleontological studies, which will be tested in terms of safety, nutrition, organoleptic qualities. The combinations resulting higher performance in these biological and chemicalphysical test; will be endowed of cultural load (name, decoration, story ...) based on the same paleontological studies. We hope that this project allows as soon as possible that a foreign tourist in a restaurant can enjoy a tasty and healthy food with an attractive name, alluring story and singular cutlery similar to that which was served fifteen millennia ago by the first inhabitants of what is now Chile.  
  • Keywords: Pleistocene; Gastronomy; Identity; Positioning; Monte Verde