Nº 2, Julio 2012

Nº 2, Julio 2012
Automata facing constraints of time and energy in extreme zones: a simulation from Evolutionary Economics - Andrés Soto Pereira - Download

  • Abstract. This paper proposes a model to explain the behavior of an automaton when it replaces humans facing shortage scenarios. Particularly it studies the behavior of the robot when is targeted on missions in extreme zones, the latter being understood as those parts of a territory whose natural conditions hamper the human physiology and so the performance at work. Accepting the recommendations from Evolutionary Economics as heterodox branch of Economics, it emulates the behavior of vertebrates in classical automata with the restriction of both time and energy when the device is entrusted the survey data in naturally hostile environments. The simulations show that performance of an automaton increases by 20% compared to a traditional one. Whereas the third of the planet's surface is essentially an extreme place, comprising of the polar caps, hyper-arid
    deserts, volcanoes and other inhospitable areas of reduced contribution to GDP; is expected that this proposal can be an attractive technology for the complete integration of those extreme zones.
  • Keywords: emulation, productivity, automaton, extreme zone, evolution, scarcity.

¿Why did democracies vanish in Latin América? - Jorge Andrés Pomar Rodríguez - Download

  • Abstract: This paper attempts to explain the reason why democracy in Latin America was missing during the 60´s and 70`s in the 20th century.  Many works and theories of political scientists and historians have been revised, identifying democracy as a system of administration as well as a kind of cultural obsession. The inability to solve problems is a fast track to disloyalty to the presidents. Further, the organizational structure does not offer opportunities for presidents to resign without damaging the political forces which they represented. If democracy is considered a highly valued good, social cybernetics based on an adequate monitoring system with actuators efficient and always loyal to the constitution, seems to be a strategy to avoid future collapses.
  • Keywords: democracy, collapse, military, political, environmental good, cybernetics.

Paleontology and the fossil record: new answer to old question about the loneliness of human been as specie - Roberto Díaz Aros - Download

  • Abstract. The human paleontology or systematic search of our ancestors and early hominids -representatives of Mankind and close relatives among primates- today has become one of the most exciting scientific research and full of questions. Regarding the fossil record, it is possible to figure out the evolutionary path of human been, noting that he lived with other species with cultural expressions, and raising the Speciesism as an extinction phenomenon of near ones.
  • Keywords: human paleontology, fossil record, hominids, Sui generis, Speciesism.

Stop being island: reflections about a tunnel or bridge that connects Isla Grande de Tierra del Fuego to continent - Cristopher Marchant Sepúlveda - Download


  • Abstract: Because there is no ground transportation between the island and the mainland, transport between Tierra del Fuego island and South America is performed on ships and airplanes, without the regularity and frequency required for full regional integration. In this paper, we discuss the pros and cons of building and operating a bridge or tunnel in the narrowest parts of the Magellan strait. Regarding global experiences and studying the demographics, oceanography and geology of the area, it is concluded that the sector more conducive to realizing a bridge is the Primera Angostura, where such civil work would reach less than 5 kilometers long. Is expected as soon as possible having precise economic studies to refine the design and to define the bridge management system.
  • Keywords: connectivity, territorial planning, technological challenge, megaproject.

Hybrid Support Vector Machines to Classify Traffic Accidents in the Región Metropolitana de Santiago - Marcelo Farías Concha - Download


  • Abstract: This work proposes a method to classify the traffic accidents, especially in the territorial unit with greater number of people and vehicles of Chile:  Metropolitan region. It used Support Vector Machines (SVM), tools which given a set of training samples as examples, allow to classify and thus train the SVM to build a model that predicts the class of a new sample. This technique despite being robust, it also has weaknesses, which are presented as a combinatorial problem in estimating and adjusting their input parameters. Obtaining good results depends on the intrinsic characteristics presented by SVM also the correct choice of the Kernel function and the input parameters. The choice and adjustment of parameters was performed with an evolutionary algorithm of Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO). Finally, to solve the problem different models were developed used SVM with PSO algorithms, which sought to classify the degree of severity of the people who are involved in traffic accidents: uninjured or injured. Searching better results, variations of PSO where used, generating different models, comparing the results obtained with this to make the best choice for optimal results in the classification. Therefore, the best results were obtained for Puente Alto, with 94% accuracy, 100% sensitivity and 83% specificity.
  • Keywords: Traffic Accidents, Classification, Support Vector Machine, Particle Swarm Optimization.